Author Topic: What people call people  (Read 2858 times)

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Offline Kiaevita

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What people call people
« on: March 26, 2013, 07:22:48 AM »
UPDATED as of 3/29/13. I'm trying to think of a different way of grouping. If you have suggestions, please comment. Also, keep suggesting what I should include.

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Some honorifics and titles and pronouns commonly used (will update/edit as I get more time):

Male:
-兄/-xiong: means brother, but formal. Usually same age or older, but can be on younger people to show certain respect. Often seen used to address newly acquainted friend. Must used surname in front (Tian-xiong). Cannot be used by itself.

-师兄/-shixiong: exclusively used with old disciples of the same sect or of the same alliance. Can use surname (Lu-shixiong) or number in front (da-shixiong, er-shixiang, where "da"=big and "er"=two). Can be used by itself in addressing the person.

-哥/-ge: literally big brother, informal. Use on older or same age. Can use surname or number. Usually related or have taken vows of blood (a process know as Jiebai). Can be used by itself in addressing the person.

-哥哥/-gege: an term of endearment. Used by little kids, especially girls.  Can be used with surnames, number (though I can't remember a time when it's gone past 2), or by itself.

[Hence the scene in Strange Hero Yi Zhi Mei where Hu cringed when Xiaomei called Gexiao "Gege", whereas the former thought it was "gege", the later meant "Ge[Name]-ge"]

-弟/-di : literally little brother, used with same age or younger. I don't remember ever seeing it use with surnames. almost used exclusively with numbers.

弟弟/didi: used only by itself. Like gege is usually used by the youngest to address/refer to the older ones, didi is used almost exclusively by older ones on youngest brother.

贤弟/xiandi: literally "virtuous little brother". very formal way to refer/address to little brother. usually used by those of high power/status towards equals or lower in formal setting.

兄弟/xiongdi: inclusive of older and younger, equi. usually used alone, can take surnames but not numbers. there's a semantic level of this honorific, which is that it's only used for those who are real pals, so to speak.

-师父/-shifu: this is the Shifu that teaches you stuff, often translated as master. This person is like your parents. Really can be male or female, but male most of the time. this is more of a title. Can take surname, number (if you're lucky) or used by itself.

-师傅/shifu: this is the Shifu that's the true honorific. You don't choose who to call to call 师父, but you can with this Shifu. It's like the difference between calling someone sir because they're knighted or you're his butler and calling someone sir because you have respect for the person or you don't know the person and you're polite. Although don't worry too much about the difference between the two Shifu's that look different but sound alike, even natives make this mistake. Can take surname, or used by itself. Usually only male, but occasionally used on female to show extreme respect.

-叔/-dashu: usually translated as uncle, brothers of father. Used with numbers.

-大叔/-dashu: often also translated as uncle, however this can literally be any male a generation above you that's not your father, including strangers. Used with surnames, nicknames, or by itself. Sometimes used to tease same generation older males about their excessive maturity, if that's even possible...

相公 /xianggong: "opposing male”, a way to address and refer to husband. intimate and rather informal

官人 /guanren: "official person", very formal way of saying "husband"

夫君 /fujun: "husband man" formal

孩子他/她爹(/爸) or 她/他爹(/爸) / haizitadie(/ba) or tadie(/ba): literally, "child his/her father" or "his father", used to address a father

老爷 / laoye: "old man", usually translated as "old master", especially when said by servants, but can also be used by wife of older men to refer to her husband.

老头子 /laotouzi: "old man", very informal. If used by a wife, it probably means the couple has been through a lot and is one that everyone can envy. When used by arrogant brats, it's an insult.

Female:

姐/jie: sister, surname, number, or by itself.

大姐/dajie: big sister, in addition to refer to oldest sister, it can be used on older female of same generation that are strangers. Also commonly used to address an older women who's obviously a generation above you to flatter them, but if addressing someone who's obviously young can be insulting. Also used by adult women of similar age with each others. Surname or by itself. Note that in real life in China, it is now preferable to address any women as "xiaojie", see below.

小姐/xiaojie: literally "small sister", but it has exclusively taken on the meaning of miss. By itself or with surname. Used on daughters of family that at least have servants, so any where from officials to business men. Can also be used on any female strangers of the same generation, or used on much older women as flattery or sarcastic insult. Like miss in English, it also take the meaning of older women who are not married. Used with surname to indicate house of origin, or with numbers to indicate rank within the family. Stand alone is used with strangers.

师姐/shijie: older female disciples of same generation, surnames, number or by itself.

姐姐/jiejie: endearment form of older sister. informal. surname, number or by itself.

妹/mei: younger sister,

舍妹/shemei: humble form of "my sister", formal, when addressing superior

妹子/meizi: informal way of referring and addressing little sister. a form of endearment used often by males when "meimei" is too sentimental sounding.

师妹/shimei: younger female discipline of same generation. surname, number or by itself.

妹妹/meimei: endearment of "sister", informal. surname or by itself.

-娘/niang: "mother", but also "aunt", surname. by itself means "mother". (I've not seen this in an ancient Chinese series yet, but in Sichuan dialect, adding number to this word indicate ranks of aunts on the fathers side) Not to be confused with the "niang" that's in the actual name of people. (ex: Xi Shi San Niang, from Liao Zhai, or San Niang, from Strange Heroes Yi Zhi Mei, both played by Liu Shi Shi, wat.)

大妈/dama: usually used to address women a generation above. informal. Can be used to address strangers. Can take surnames.

大娘/daniang: similar to "dama", but more formal and respecting.

娘子/niangzi: one of the most common way of saying "wife". Can also be used to refer to an unmarried women, equivalent to madam in certain periods (with in the ancient Chinese timeline). (ex: Bai Niang Zi, or Madam White in Legend of the White Snake. Or "xiao niang zi", although when this appears in an ancient Chinese series, it's usually either derogatory to the woman it refers to, or is said by some rapist to address the woman they're abducting/seducing/trying to rap).

妾室/qieshi: "wife/concubine room", use to refer to any woman married to the man, can also refer to all wives of a man, can also be used as self referring pronoun when used by wife addressing the husband.

内人/neiren: "inside person", normal to informal way of referring "wife", usually exclusively one or first wife.

孩子他/她娘/(/妈) or 她/他娘(/妈) / haizita'niang(/ma) or ta'niang(/ma): literally "child his mother" or "his mother", used to address a mother.

[Concubines, officials and royalty titles will be in a different post]

Genderless:

知己/zhiji: "know self", a combination of muse and best friend. basically someone who knows self.

老/lao: "old", equivalent to John --> Old John, but in addition to the referring property of its English conterpart, it can also be used in address. Indicate intimacy/familiarity. Used with surname, or number to indicate ranking between siblings or vowed-siblings.

小/xiao: "little", equivalent to John --> L'il John, this prefix is added to surname, name, or parts of name to indicated familiarity , and serves as a nickname. This is not to be confused with people whose actual name has this character. (ex: Shi Xiaolong, who plays the little monk Zhan Zhao in Young Justice Bao series, has the "xiao" character in his name, but it's his actual name, not a nickname). Usually used with young people.

阿/a: same as "xiao", also can be part of person's name (ex: A Nu, from Chinese Paladin I). commonly used with servants. similar to a Sam --> Sammy kind of change.

Self: (these are mostly pronouns)
朕/zhen: imperial use only. The first emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang chose this word, originally a simple first person pronoun, to be exclusively used by the emperor. Use of this word by any other person is blasphemy and treason. Often it becomes a habit for the emperor to use this instead of the regular first person pronoun, and has lead to some plot points in identifying an incognito emperor.

俺/an: This is a very informal way of saying "I/me", to the point that it's becoming and indication of illiteracy, ignorance, stupidity or rural background. (ex: Chai Hu in Strange Heroes Yi Zhi Mei)

在下/zaixia: literally "at below", humble way of saying self.

属下/shuxia: literally "belong below", used when speaking to superiors that's in an actual structured hierarchy, such as the government, or a household (as oppose to vague age or status comparison).

小人/xiaoren: "little man“, while using it to refer to someone else is insulting (that they are low and scheming), it is a humble form of "I/me" when referring to self.

晚生/wansheng: "born later", usually used to address older people, but never people of higher status but younger age.

小生/xiaoshen: "little student/man". usually used by scholars/students as a humble way to refer to self.

奴婢/nubi: "slave female", self referring pronoun for female servants

奴才/nucai: "slave ?", self referring pronoun for male or female servants.

-某/ -mou: means "who", used to indicate humbleness, used by itself or suffixes surnames

”You“: (more pronouns)
阁下/gexia: respectful way to address stranger

您/ning: the character is pictorially a "heart" under "you", and is pronounced with a /-ng/ sound attached to the word for "you" -- /ni/.  formal way of addressing "you".







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Offline sapphiresky

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Re: What people call people
« Reply #1 on: March 28, 2013, 11:29:30 AM »
WOOW what a brilliant list...

BTW you may like to add

-mou

They often use this at the end of their name, to mean humbleness.

There's also shiniang, shishu, shigu, shifu (so many senior/junior terms)


《Upcoming: Xuan Yuan Sword - Scar of the Sky: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ikFReY9JDI8

Offline Mr2tails

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Re: What people call people
« Reply #2 on: March 28, 2013, 05:45:50 PM »
WOOW what a brilliant list...

BTW you may like to add

-mou

They often use this at the end of their name, to mean humbleness.

There's also shiniang, shishu, shigu, shifu (so many senior/junior terms)
mou-某
sapphiresky, how about the address between husband and wife?
问世间情是何物,直教生死相许。
天南地北双飞客,老翅几回寒暑。
欢乐趣,离别苦,就中更有痴儿女。
君应有语,渺万里层云,千山暮雪,只影向谁去。

横汾路,寂寞当年箫鼓,荒烟依旧平楚。
招魂楚些何嗟及,山鬼暗啼风雨。
天也妒,未信与,莺儿燕子俱黄土。
千秋万古,为留待骚人,狂歌痛饮,来访雁邱处。

Offline sapphiresky

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Re: What people call people
« Reply #3 on: March 29, 2013, 12:45:01 AM »
OH YES!

Like

xianggong

niangzi

guanren

(i've heard of those before in shows)




《Upcoming: Xuan Yuan Sword - Scar of the Sky: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ikFReY9JDI8

Offline Mr2tails

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Re: What people call people
« Reply #4 on: March 29, 2013, 04:10:27 PM »
OH YES!

Like

xianggong

niangzi

guanren

(i've heard of those before in shows)


I bet you haven't seen this one before:"媳妇子". http://baike.baidu.com/view/8716877.htm
Thank you ROCH for teaching me this phrase for wife.
Can sapphiresky do a bilingual podcast with her hubby with all the different husband and wife addresses?
问世间情是何物,直教生死相许。
天南地北双飞客,老翅几回寒暑。
欢乐趣,离别苦,就中更有痴儿女。
君应有语,渺万里层云,千山暮雪,只影向谁去。

横汾路,寂寞当年箫鼓,荒烟依旧平楚。
招魂楚些何嗟及,山鬼暗啼风雨。
天也妒,未信与,莺儿燕子俱黄土。
千秋万古,为留待骚人,狂歌痛饮,来访雁邱处。

Offline Kiaevita

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Sect section
« Reply #5 on: March 30, 2013, 03:43:40 AM »
Within a sect or a discipline: (in hierarchical order from low to high relative to self)

徒孙/tusun: grand student, or student of your student

徒弟/tudi: student

师弟、师妹/ shidi、shimei: same generation, like younger brother and sister in a family hierarchy, respectively

(YOU)

师姐、师哥、师兄/shijie、shige、shixiong: same generation, like older sister and brother in a family hierarchy, respectively. The last is a formal way of to refer/address the "older brother"

师父/shifu: master, the one that teaches you the skills. can be male or female, but in reality, is usually male. (female ex: Xiao Long Nu from ROCH, Yi Ling (to Tian Boguang) from Swordman/Proud Smiling Wanderer)

师娘/shiniang: exclusively the wife of shifu, given that shifu is male.

师叔/shishu: those with the same master as your shifu, but younger, can be male or female. A bit like uncles and aunts in a family hierarchy.

师尊/shizun: honorific title for master

师伯/shibo: same master as your shifu, but older, can be male or female.

师祖/shizhu: master of your master,

祖师/zushi: original/first master of the sect or discipline

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Offline ThanaRose

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Re: What people call people
« Reply #6 on: June 07, 2013, 11:35:41 PM »
This list is so helpful!!!
Thanks for compiling it!

Offline MouniJose

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Re: What people call people
« Reply #7 on: September 30, 2013, 02:38:02 AM »
BTW you may like to add.
We see a sexy sexy lingerie worn by female models on the pages of a magazine.